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Elizabeth  Schotter

Elizabeth Schotter

Elizabeth Schotter
Assistant Professor


Office: PCD 4119
Phone: 813/974-0377
Lab: PCD 3122



Liz Schotter, Ph.D. is an Assistant Professor, who joined the Cognition, Neuroscience, and Social program in August 2016. Her research focuses on the coordination of cognitive systems that produce efficient behavior; how visual perception and cognitive processing are coordinated when people read, speak or make decisions. For example, she studies the processing components underlying reading (e.g., visual perception, word identification, comprehension, eye movement control, etc.) and how they change under different situations (e.g., reading silently vs. aloud, proofreading, speed reading, etc.), as a function of linguistic factors (e.g., words that are more vs. less common, expected, confusable, plausible, etc.), and for different readers (e.g., adults, children, bilinguals, deaf readers, etc.).

Liz’s work primarily uses eye-tracking. In her spare time, she enjoys camping/hiking, the beach/ocean, brewing beer and cooking with her husband Ross. Liz is a native of Brooklyn, NY, did a brief stint in St. Louis, MO for college and spent 9 years in San Diego, CA for graduate school and her post-doc.


2013 - Ph.D.; (Cognitive) Psychology; University of California, San Diego
2008 - M.A.; (Cognitive) Psychology; University of California, San Diego
2007 – B.A.s; Psychology, Classics; Washington University in St. Louis


Psychology of Language (Undergraduate: Fall 2018); Writing & Reviewing (Graduate: Fall 2018); Experimental Design & Analysis (Undergraduate: Spring 2019); Presentation & Data Visualization (Graduate: Spring 2019)


Eye movements & cognition; Language processing; visual processing; reading

Specialty Area


Recent Publications

Schotter, E.R., (in press). Reading ahead by hedging our bets on seeing the future: Eye tracking and electrophysiology evidence for parafoveal lexical processing and saccadic control by partial word recognition. Psychology of Learning and Motivation, 68.

Schotter, E.R., Leinenger, M., & von der Malsburg, T. (2018). When your mind skips what your eyes fixate: How forced fixations lead to comprehension illusions in reading. Psychonomic Bulletin & Review, online first.

Schotter, E.R., von der Malsburg, T., & Leinenger, M. (2018). Forced fixations, trans-saccadic integration, and word recognition: Evidence for a hybrid mechanism of saccade triggering in reading. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning Memory & Cognition, online first.

Bélanger, N.N. Lee, M. & Schotter, E.R. (2018). Young skilled deaf readers have an enhanced perceptual span in reading. Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology, 71, 291-301.

Schotter, E.R., Pollatsek, A., & Rayner, K. (2017). Reading. In Reference Module in Neuroscience and Behavioral Psychology, Elsevier.

Schotter, E.R., & Jia, A. (2016). Semantic and Plausibility Preview Benefit Effects in English: Evidence from Eye Movements. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory & Cognition, 42, 1839-1866.

Schotter, E.R., & Leinenger, M. (2016). Reversed preview benefit effects: Forced fixations emphasize the importance of parafoveal vision for efficient reading. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Perception and Performance, 42, 2039-2067.

Clifton, C., Ferreira, F., Henderson, J., Inhoff, A.W., Liversedge, S., Reichle, E.D., & Schotter, E.R. (2016). Eye movements in reading and information processing: Keith Rayner’s 40 year legacy. Journal of Memory and Language, 86, 1-19.

Leinenger, M., Schotter, E.R., & Rayner, K. (2016). Models of the reading process. In H.L. Miller (Ed.), The SAGE Encyclopedia of Theory in Psychology. (pp. 785-789). Los Angeles: SAGE Publications, inc.

Rayner, K., Schotter*, E.R., Masson, M.J.E., Potter, M.C., & Treiman, R. (2016). So much to read, so little time: How do we read, and can speed reading help? Psychological Science in the Public Interest, 17, 4-34. *Corresponding author

Schotter, E.R., Lee, M., Reiderman, M., & Rayner, K. (2015). The effect of contextual constraint on parafoveal processing in reading. Journal of Memory & Language, 83, 118-139.

Schotter, E.R., & Rayner, K. (2015). The work of the eyes during reading. In A. Pollatsek & R. Treiman (Eds.), Oxford Handbook of Reading (pp. 44-62). Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Angele, B., Schotter, E.R., Slattery, T.J., Tenenbaum, T.L., Bicknell, K., & Rayner, K. (2015). Do successor effects in reading reflect lexical parafoveal processing? Evidence from corpus-based and experimental eye movement data. Journal of Memory & Language, 79-80, 76-96.

Schotter, E.R., Bicknell, K., Howard, I., Levy, R., & Rayner, K. (2014). Task effects reveal cognitive flexibility responding to frequency and predictability: Evidence from eye movements in reading and proofreading. Cognition, 131, 1-27.

Schotter, E.R., Jia, A., Ferreira, V.S., & Rayner, K. (2014). Preview benefit in speaking occurs regardless of preview timing. Psychonomic Bulletin & Review, 21, 755-762.

Schotter, E.R., Reichle, E.D., & Rayner, K. (2014). Rethinking Parafoveal Processing in Reading: Serial Attention Models can Account for Semantic Preview Benefit and n+2 Preview Effects. Visual Cognition, 22, 309-333.

Schotter, E.R., Tran, R., & Rayner, K. (2014). Don't believe what you read (only once): Comprehension is supported by regressions during reading. Psychological Science, 25, 1218-1226.

Gollan, T.H., Schotter, E.R., Gomez, J., Murillo, M., & Rayner, K. (2014). Multiple levels of bilingual control: Evidence from language intrusions in reading aloud. Psychological Science, 25, 585-595.

Rayner, K. & Schotter, E.R. (2014). Semantic preview benefit in reading English: The effect of initial letter capitalization. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Perception and Performance, 40,, 1617-1628.

Rayner, K., Schotter, E.R., & Drieghe, D. (2014). Lack of semantic parafoveal preview benefit in reading revisited. Psychonomic Bulletin & Review, 21, 1067-1072.

Schotter, E.R. (2013). Synonyms provide semantic preview benefit in English. Journal of Memory and Language, 69, 619-633.

Schotter, E.R., Ferreira, V.S., & Rayner, K. (2013). Parallel object activation and attentional gating of information: Evidence from eye movements in the multiple object naming paradigm. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory and Cognition, 39, 365-374.

Schotter, E.R., & Rayner, K. (2013). Eye movements in reading. In E. Perego (Ed.), Eye Tracking in Audiovisual Translation (pp. 83-104). Rome: Aracne.

Ferreira, V.S. & Schotter, E.R. (2013). Do verb bias effects on sentence production reflect sensitivity to comprehension or production factors? Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology, 66, 1548-1571.

Rayner, K., Angele, B, Schotter, E.R., & Bicknell, K. (2013). On the processing of canonical word order during eye fixations in reading: Do readers process transposed word previews? Visual Cognition, 21, 353-381.

Rayner, K. & Schotter, E.R. (2013). Eye movements during reading. In H. Pashler (Ed.), Encyclopedia of the Mind. (pp. 338-340). Los Angeles: SAGE Publications, inc.

Wang, H.-C., Schotter, E.R., Angele, B., Yang, J., Simovici, D., Pomplun, M., & Rayner, K. (2013). Using singular value decomposition to investigate the configuration of Chinese characters: Evidence from eye movements during reading. Journal of Research in Reading, 36, S35-S50.

Schotter, E.R., Angele, B., & Rayner, K. (2012). Parafoveal processing in reading. Attention, Perception & Psychophysics, 74, 5-35.

Schotter, E.R., Blythe, H.I., Kirkby, J.A., Rayner, K., Holliman, N.S. & Liversedge, S.P. (2012). Binocular coordination: Reading stereoscopic sentences in depth. PLoS ONE, 7.

Schotter, E.R., Gerety, C. & Rayner, K. (2012). Heuristics and criterion setting during selective encoding in visual decision-making: evidence from eye movements. Visual Cognition, 20, 1110-1129.

Schotter, E.R., & Rayner, K. (2012). Eye movements and word recognition during reading. In J. Adelman (Ed.), Visual Word Recognition Volume 2: Meaning and Context, Individuals and Development (pp. 73-101). New York: Psychology Press.

Rayner, K., Pollatsek, A. & Schotter, E.R. (2012). Reading: Word identification and eye movements. In A. Healy (Ed.) Handbook of Psychology, Volume 4: Experimental Psychology (pp. 548-577). Hoboken: Wiley.

Schotter, E.R. (2011). Eye Movements as an index of linguistic processing in language production. Studies of Psychology and Behavior, 9, 16-23.

Slattery, T., Schotter, E.R., Berry, R. & Rayner, K. (2011). Parafoveal and foveal processing of abbreviations during reading: Making a case for case. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning Memory and Cognition, 37, 1022-1031.

Schotter, E.R., Berry, R., McKenzie, C., & Rayner, K. (2010). Gaze bias: Selective encoding and liking effects. Visual Cognition, 18, 1113-1132.